rabbi (RAB·bí), pl. rabbis (RAB·bís). From the Hebrew word rabi for which the Greek equivalent was ràbbí. A title of respect in addressing a first-century Jewish teacher of the Torah. Its derivation is from lord or master and a proper form of address. Rabboni conveys even greater respect (Mark 10:51, John 20:16). Not until after the destruction of the Temple in CE 70 did the title "Rabbi" come to be conferred officially upon Jewish teachers who were authorized to decide questions of ritual and religious law as the remnant of the Pharisee movement emerged as rabbinic Judaism.
radiocarbon dating (RA·di·o·CAR·bon DAT·ing). An absolute dating method based upon measuring the decay rate of the carbon isotope C-14 to stable nitrogen. The resulting dates are calibrated with tree-ring chronologies, from radio carbon ages into dates in calendar years.
referral argument (). An argument made by reference to an acknowledged authority. The statement "The majority of scholars believe..." is a referral argument. Since the majority of scholars supposedly believe something then, according to the argument, so should you.
regional survey (RE·gion·al sur·VEY). In an archaeological context the examination of a specific region in order to determine and delineate the form, extent, and position of its archaeological resources. Often such surveys are competed through aerial photographs, satellite photography, physical inspection of the land, and instrumental analysis from sonic pulses.
registration of pottery (REG·is·TRA·tion of POT·ter·y). The marking of sherds with registration numbers according to some predetermined system, e.g., season, field, area, locus usually a single basket), and sherd number. This system facilitates the identification of shards in information processing.
regnal year (REG·nal year). The year of a monarch's reign, e.g., the fifth year of Cyrus, calculated in many cultures beginning with the year the monarch ascended the throne. This results in the monarch's first regnal year actually constituting only a fraction of a literal calendar year in that culture. In other cultures the first regnal year is the first full year of the monarch's reign. In this case the monarch ascended the throne in the year of his or her predecessor but the first regnal year does not include that fractional period. Credit for the year goes to the previous monarch. Thus a regnal year may or may not be the same as the monarch's accession year.
relative chronology (REL·a·tive chro·NOL·o·gy). A relative chronology consists of one in which the order of succession of phenomena exists but not the dates.
revitalization movement (re·VI·tal·i·ZA·tion MOVE·ment). A religious movement explicitly intended to create a new way of life for a society or group.
ritual (RIT·u·al). A set form, procedure, or system of religious or other rites consisting of organized, stereotyped, and repetitive behaviors intended to communicate sacred symbols to members if a sociocultural system and often to influence supernatural powers, e.g., ritual circumcision, keeping Sundays, Easter sunrise rites, food taboos, baptism, communion, and confession.
ritual circumcision (RIT·u·al CIR·cum·CI·sion). The ritual removal of the foreskin of a male's penis or the tip of a female's clitoris. The latter eliminates the female's ability to experience sexual gratification in intercourse. Anciently the Greeks and Romans had an abhorrence of circumcision.
ritual immersion (RIT·u·al im·MER·sion). Full immersion in fresh running water in order to become ceremonially clean under the Mosaic Code.
ritual purity (RIT·u·al PU·ri·ty). The state of being ceremonially clean according to the Mosaic Code.
Roman bath (RO·man bath). Public bathing places were common in Roman cities but they were not for maintenance of cleanliness. They were centers for social life designed for pleasure. They often included promenades and fields for sports and games. The bath proper consisted of three basic elenents the caldarium (the hot room), the frigidarium (the cold room), and the tepidarium (the warm room).
Romance languages (ro·MANCE LAN·guages). The set of Italic Indo-European languages derived since CE 800 from Latin, e.g., French, Italian, Ladino, Portuguese, Provencal Catalan, Rhaeto-Romantic, Romanian, Sardinian, and Spanish.
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