Talmud (tal·MUD) pl. Talmudh. A collection of writings consisting of rabbinic civil and religious law including the Mishna together with commentary thereon, called the Gemara. There are two Talmudhthe Jerusalem Talmud, or Palestinian Talmud, completed in the fourth century CE and the Babylonian Talmud completed about CE 600.
Tanach (ta·NAK). The Hebrew term for the three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures consisting of the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (Torah, to·RA, law), (Nebiim, ne·vi·VIM, prophets), (Ketubim, ke·tu·VIM, writings) or Torah Nevim Ketuvim abbreviated T-N-K. Vowels were added so T-N-K became Ta-Na-K to facilitate pronunciation as Tanach (also Tanakh, or Tanak). Jews came to use the term Tanach to refer to the Hebrew Scriptures.
Tannaim (tan·NA·im), sing. Tanna (TAN·na). Mishna scholars.
tel (tel). The Israeli spelling of tell. In Hebrew tel means hill.
tell (tell). An artificial mound primarily consisting of debris brought about the creation of subsequent occupations of a site. The Israeli spelling is tel, as in Tel Aviv. In Hebrew tel means hill.
Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (ten lost tribes of IS·ra·el). Under the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon the people of Israel formed a single nation through the union of the twelve tribes. This confederation ended at the death of Solomon when the tribes separated into two independent states. The northern Kingdom of Israel separated itself from the Kingdom of Judah at the beginning of the reign of Solomon’s son Rehoboam. The northern tribes formed the Kingdom of Israel. The tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi made up the Kingdom of Judah to the south. In BCE 722 the Kingdom of Israel fell to Sargon II and the Assyrians. By order of its conquerors the substantial majority of its inhabitants relocated in Assyria as captives, exiles, and slaves. This was the original Diaspora. These became known as the lost ten tribes because their ultimate fate remains unknown. At this time some members of the northern tribes, a remnant, fled to the south and joined themselves to the Kingdom of Judah. Evidence of this refugee movement into Judah are new neighborhoods and building programs at Jerusalem at that time. Hence the people known as the Jews involved some admixture of the tribes. This kingdom, which later fell to the Babylonians in BCE 587, added the Jews, that is the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Levi, and the remaining remnant of the Ten Tribes to the Dispersion. When Jewish exiles returned to Judea during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah not all did so. Those who did not go back remained part of the Dispersion which by then not only extended throughout the Roman Empire but to regions and lands far beyond.
Testimonia (TEST·i·MON·ia). Relatively common ancient lists consisting of collections of scriptural texts of prophetic character, called Testimonia because they provided the principal evidence of the Messiah to come (Bagatti 1971a:137; Barr 1987:140). A theory that there circulated among ancient Jews and among early Christians collections of passages from Scripture, often messianic, for use in disputation (Wise 1996:229).
theory (THE·o·ry). Structures of ideas or systematically organized knowledge that explain, explicate, or interpret phenomena. In scientific sense a set of hypotheses that resist falsification although they have been repeatedly tested are sufficient to be a theory.
tithe (tithe). In Hebrew ma´aserot (ma·as·er·ot) originally a religious tax of one tenth of the annual produce of ones land or increase, or its equivalent in money; the first tithe, calculated on productive increase, e.g. wages, interest income, capital gains and the like (Leviticus 27:30-33); Deuteronomy 14:22). It did not include gifts nor inheritances. The festival tithe, the second tithe, maaser sheni, was an additional tithe set aside by individuals for their expenses incurred in Annual Sabbath and festival observances (Deuteronomy 12:5-7; 14:22-26).
Tomb of David (tomb of DA·vid). On the western hill of Jerusalem, just outside the Zion Gate of the old city near the crest of Mt. Sion or Mt. Zion, lie the partial remains of the Holy Church of God, the mother of all the Churches of God, in a small synagogue known as the Tomb of David. More information.
torah, tora (to·RAH). Literally "a law." Generally a parchment scroll containing the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures) but now also learning, law, instruction and the whole body of Jewish religious literature. The Greek transliteration is nomos (NOM·os).
tradition of the elders (tra·DI·tion of the EL·ders). The unwritten customs, beliefs, practices, rituals, and rules promulgated by the Pharisees as oral law based upon the Pharisaical reasoning and thought of previous generations. See halakah. More Information.
Trinity (TRIN·i·ty). The theory of the nature of God that one divine essence exists in three divine persons or hypostases. The Council of Constantinople in CE 381 resolved the matter for Byzantine Christianity with adoption of the Nicene Creed declaring the nature of God to be one divine essence existing in three hypostases, known as the Trinity, reflecting their exegesis of the wording of Hebrews 1:3. Relegated to a mystery the Trinity doctrine is wanting of proof since neither theologians nor normal human reasoning have convincingly reconciled how three modes of being compose one God. While God is one, the question remains "One what?" Hence, this weighty criterion of Nicene orthodoxy is a belief not subject to technical scholarly verification. For well over a millennium the Trinity doctrine has generated as many questions and problems for Christianity as it supposedly resolved and it still divides many in Christian orthodoxy let alone the heterodox. The Greek term hypostases (pl.) and hypostasis (sing.) resist translation into English.
Twelve Tribes of Israel (twelve tribes of IS·ra·el). The twelve tribes of Israel consisted of Asher, Benjamin, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Joseph (composed of the two half tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh), Judah, Levi, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulun.
type (tīp). In biblical prophecy type is a pattern or symbol of something future while antitype is the fulfillment, e.g., an event in the Hebrew Scriptures foreshadowing a New Testament event. Type prefigures antitype. A type is not merely an analogy or a metaphor, but a true model of a greater fulfillment to come. One substitutes the antitype into the symbolism of the type to arrive at the full meaning. For example, Aaron and Jesus Christ are the type and the antitype respectively for the high priest that made atonement for the sins of the people. The Jewish Passover was the type and the crucifixion of Jesus the antitype. See antitype.
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