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fact (fact). A fact is an observation that is readily verifiable through confirmation by reasonable observers and reliable subject matter experts. The derivation of a fact comes through direct observation, experimentation, inspection, and the like. A fact, contrary to what many people believe, does not mean nor imply absolute certainty. A fact is not an absolute truth. It simply means there is sufficient reliable confirmation to accept its veracity. For the production of facts researchers commonly employ the methods of science, exegesis, and hermeneutics. In terms of validity the former is the most reliable method for the production of facts and the latter the least.

faith (faith). The unquestioning or firm belief in something for which there exists no objective evidence or proof. In its deepest sense faith is the assurance a person has in the things hoped for wherein he or she has absolute certainty in a belief held without proof and relies upon that belief.

famine (FAM·ine). An epidemic starvation, resulting from an extreme and general scarcity of food,  and associated widespread death from starvation-related diseases.

features (FEA·tures). Material culture associated in or about an archaeological site which ordinarily would not be removed to a research laboratory or other off site facility for further study and analysis, e.g., earth ovens, postholes, houses, mudbrick walls, dirt floors, storage pits, and the like.

fibula (FIB·u·la). In the ancient Greek world a light wooden pin used to pierce the foreskin and keep it closed so that the glans penis would not show.

field book (field book). A basic recording book provided for every square excavated. It is composed of locus sheets and graph paper, the use of which provides for a thorough, integrated record of all the facts discerned about any given locus.

field supervisor (field SU·per·VI·sor). The person, reporting to the excavation director,  who has immediate on-site supervisory responsibility for the actual process of excavating at an excavation.

figurative language (FIG·u·ra·tive LAN·guage). Language that is more metaphorical than literal.

fill (fill). Soil, stones, debris, and the like used to occupy a given space or to build up the level of an area or ground.

First Jewish Revolt (first JEW·ish re·VOLT). The Jewish War of CE 66-70 between Jewish zealots and Rome. While there were various insurrections by Jewish zealots with religious and political aims in the Roman period the most significant was the revolt against imperial Rome in CE 66 which began the First Jewish War (CE 66-70).

fission (FIS·sion). Splitting of a band into two or more parts.

floating wall (FLOAT·ing wall). A term used to describe the point at which a wall has been excavated down to its associated use-surface so that the bottom course of stone or mud brick have been exposed into earlier layers.

folkways (FOLK·ways). The norms guiding the patterns of everyday life in a society.

foreskin (FOR·skin). The skin covering the glans of the penis. The removal of the foreskin for cosmetic, religious, or other purposes is through a minor surgical procedure known as circumcision. See circumcise and ritual circumcision.

fossil (FOS·sil). Any impression, remains, or trace of an animal or plant from the geological past. Fossils generally result from mineralization, in a process called fossilization, where mineral substances replace organic material  in the remains of an organism.

frigidarium (FRIG·i·DAR·ium). The cold room in a Roman bath. See also caldarium, tepidarium, and Roman bath.

full moon (full moon). The "full moon" refers to the time of the illumination of the entire disk of the moon visible as a circle. The "old moon" or "waning moon" refers to the moon any time after it has been full.

fusion (FU·sion). Merging of different bands into one.


Page last edited: 02/18/07 09:55 PM


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