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  Babylonian Period (586-538)

586 Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar

  Persian Period 538-332)

538 Decree issued by Cyrus permitting the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple
520 Building of the temple begins in earnest
515 Second Temple is completed

Ezra returns to Jerusalem

444 Nehemiah's first return to Jerusalem

  Hellenistic Period (332-63)


Alexander the Great defeats Persian Empire

Judah and Jerusalem, conquered by Alexander the Great, come under Greek control and domination.


Alexander dies at Babylon


Judea becomes part of the Ptolemaic Empire of Syria

200 Judea becomes part of the Seleucid Empire of Syria
167 Persecution of Jews by Antiochus Epiphanes begins
164 Persecution ends/Temple cleansed
142 Judea wins independence from the Seleucid Empire
134-104 Reign of John Hyrcanus
103-76 Reign of Alexander Jannaeus

  Roman Period (63 BCE-CE 324)

63 Pompey imposes Roman "supervision" over Judea
42 Marc Anthony becomes ruler of the eastern portion of the Roman Empire
40 Parthian Empire invades Judea and appoints Antigonus as king
40 Roman Senate appoints Herod the Great as King of Judea
37 Herod the Great defeats Antigonus and captures Jerusalem
31 Octavian (Augustus) defeats Anthony and Cleopatra leaving him the sole ruler of the Roman Empire
4 Jesus of Nazareth is born in Bethlehem
4? Herod the Great dies
4 Herod Antipas rules Galilee; Herod Archaelaus rules Judea
CE 6 Judea becomes a Roman province
26-36 Pontius Pilate serves as Procurator of Judea
ca. 30/31? Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth at Passover (Nisan 14) and founding of the Church of  God on Pentecost
41-44 Judea ruled by Herod Agrippa
44 Judea again becomes a Roman province
49 The Jerusalem Council meets and proclaims that Gentiles do not have to  become Jews to be first-class Christians
66 First Jewish Revolt begins
70 Jerusalem and Herod's Temple destroyed by Titus, son of the Roman emperor Vespasian
73 Last Jewish resistance comes to an end with the fall of Masada
132-135 Second Jewish Revolt
135 Roman emperor Hadrian bans Jews from Jerusalem and rebuilds it as a Roman city named Aelia Capitolina

  Byzantine Period (324-638)

324 Helena, mother of Constantine visits Palestine to identify holy sites
330 Eusebius, writes the Onomasticon., an alphabetical listing of place names in the Bible, with annotations on their history and location
361 Byzantine emperor Julian encourages Jews to rebuild their Temple
363 Julian's successor halts work on Jewish Temple
ca. 385 Journal of Egeria, written by a nun from northern Spain or southern France, who made a journey to the Holy Land
382-405 Latin Bible (the Vulgate) prepared by Jerome in Bethlehem
ca. 570 Visit to the Holy land by the Anonymous Pilgrim of Paicenza
614 Persians invade Palestine and destroy all churches except the Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem), but allow Jews to return to Jerusalem
629 Byzantine emperor Heraclius retakes Palestine and banishes Jews from Jerusalem

  Early Arab Period (638-1099)

636 Arabs conquer Palestine
638 First Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Omar
685-691 Caliph Abd Al-Malik builds present Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
1009 Caliph  Al-Hakim destroys the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

  Crusader Period (1099-1291)

1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem and establish the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Holy Land. Jews again banished from Jerusalem
1187 Saladin defeats Crusaders at the Horns of Hatttin, bringing the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem to an end
ca. 1250 Crusaders regain control of some coastal sites in Palestine
1244-1291 Mameluke sultan Bybars drive all Crusaders from the Holy land

  Late Arab Period (1291-1516)

During most of this period of time (the period of the Mamelukes), the Holy Land was a political and economic "backwater"

  Ottoman Period (1516-1917)

1517 Suleiman the Magnificent conquers Palestine.
1536 Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds the wall around the Old City of Jerusalem

  Mandate Period 1917-1948)

1917 British General Allenby defeats the Turkish forces at Megiddo and enters Jerusalem
1917 Balfour Declaration declares Britain's intent to create a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine
1922 British authorities divide Palestine into the autonomous emirate of Trans-Jordan and British-ruled "Palestine"

  Israeli Period (1948-present)


Declaration of the State of Israel

Page last edited: 04/06/06 09:18 PM

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